South African Airways
South African Airways (SAA), known simply as 'South African' on their aircraft colour scheme, is South Africa's largest domestic and international airline company. With hubs in Cape Town and Johannesburg, South African Airways is currently one of the few profitable African airlines. It is also known in Afrikaans as Suid-Afrikaanse Lugdiens (SAL), although this version of the name no longer appears on the planes' livery.
The Jet Age
The 1950s saw the advent of the jet age with the addition of the Boeing 707 to the airline's fleet. SAA's first 707 landed in Europe in October 1960. Two years later, SAA's jets would allow the airline to fly nonstop for the first time ever from South Africa into the U.K. and SAA's other European destinations. In 1971, SAA added the Boeing 747 'Jumbo Jet' to its fleet. SAA is the only airline to fly across the South Atlantic Ocean (to S�o Paulo, Brazil) as demand for service between Africa and South America is limited.
Effect of Apartheid
The next few years would be marked by steady but slower growth. Many countries refused to trade economically with South Africa, and this affected the airline. While many airlines were growing fast on the international market, SAA's growth rate was far behind most. Many African countries, except South Africa's neighbours, refused to let SAA use their airspace, but by then SAA had acquired a fleet of 'Special Performance' Boeing 747 SPs, reducing the need for stopovers.
The only major development for airline during the 1970s was the opening of a route to Asia, with Boeing 747 flights to Hong Kong being launched. In 1980, SAA began flights to Taipei, apartheid South Africa being one of the few countries in the world to recognise the Republic of China government of Taiwan.
SAA celebrated its 50th anniversary in 1984. In this year the South African government made a controversial decision when it signed a treaty with Somalia to give extensive military aid to the repressive regime of Siad Barre in exchange for an exclusive contract to service Somali air travel. This turned out to be economically nonviable since few Somalis could afford airline tickets, and due to the incessant civil disorder in the country, few people wanted to go to Somalia.
Due to international condemnation of the apartheid regime in the late 1980s, SAA itself faced hostility, with its office being attacked. Its London office was daubed with red paint, while in Harare, Zimbabwe its offices were badly damaged after protesters went on the rampage. In 1987, SAA's services to Perth and Sydney in Australia were ended, in light of Canberra's opposition to apartheid. On November 27 of that year, tragedy struck the airline, when a 747, the Helderberg flying from Taipei to Johannesburg crashed into the Indian Ocean, near Mauritius, killing all passengers and crew.
During that year, the South African Airways Museum, with different artifacts and even an old aeroplane donated by the airline, opened its doors to the public at Johannesburg International Airport.
End of the 'Pariah Airline'
With the demise of apartheid, beginning 1990, SAA was now able to shake off its pariah image, restoring services to old destinations, introducing services to new ones, and expanding into the rest of Africa, and into Asia. June 1 of 1990 was also an important day for SAA, as South African companies signed a domestic air travel deregulation act. Later that year, SAA was chosen as the Best Airline to Africa by London magazine Executive Travel.
1991 saw the arrival of SAA's first Airbus A320 jet, and its first Boeing 747-400 jet, nicknamed the Durban. The airline resumed flights to New York for the first time since the United States imposed economic sanctions on South Africa in 1986, and South African's planes were able to fly for the first time over Egypt and Sudan.
1992 saw South African enter the Miami market (from Cape Town) by flying into Miami International Airport, and re-enter Australia. This year also saw code sharing agreements with American Airlines and Air Tanzania. That year also saw direct flights to Southeast Asia including Bangkok and Singapore.
In 1994, South African became a 25 percent owner of a company named Sax, and a feeder service (SA Express) began flying domestically. This year saw the birth of the airline Alliance, which was a partnership between SAA, Uganda Airways and Air Tanzania. Also South African greeted its passengers in four different languages during domestic flights: English, Zulu, Afrikaans and Sotho, while passengers on international flights were also greeted in the destination's local language.
In 1995, Lufthansa started a code sharing agreement with SAA, and SAA commissioned Herdbuois Diefenbach Elkins to lead South African's change of image. This year, South African's Voyager and American Airlines' AAdvantage frequent flier clubs joined together.
1996 saw flights to Singapore discontinued, with Bangkok becoming an Asian hub for the airline. That year, South African Olympic athletes were carried to Atlanta aboard 747 Ndizani and SAA won Executive Travel's best airline to Africa award for the third time.
In 1997, SAA introduced its new image and livery, dropping the springbok emblem, and the old national colours of orange, white and blue. The new livery was based upon the new national flag, with a sun. The airline's name on its aircraft was changed to simply 'South African', with the Afrikaans name Suid-Afrikaanse Lugdiens being dropped. In addition to that, the airline started online ticket sales and formed an alliance with SA Airlink and SA Express.
In 2001, South African won the Best Cargo Airline to Africa award from Air Cargo News - (even though South African is mostly a passenger airline) - and South African Airways signed a code sharing agreement with Nigeria Airways, to provide service from the United States to Lagos, using South African 747s. The airline earned a spot on the Zagat Surveys top ten international airlines list, opened a new website and named Andre Viljoen as Chief Executive Officer (CEO).
In March 2002, under CEO Andre Viljoen, South African Airways asked Airbus Industrie to overhaul its fleet at a cost of $3.5 billion. SAA ordered nine A340-600 widebodies, six A340-300s, 11 A319s and 15 A320 aircraft. Three of the A340-600 aircraft will come from International Lease Finance Corp. These new Airbus aircraft are to replace the aging Boeing fleet, as well as the recently ordered Boeing 737-800's, over a period of 8 to 9 years.
In late 2002, South African Airways made a successful bid for a 49 per cent stake in Air Tanzania. This is the first acquisition of a foreign airline for SAA.
In March 2004 South African Airways announced its application to join Star Alliance. The alliance accepted the application in June, with SAA expected to join as a full member in 2006.
In July 2004, Andre Viljoen resigned as CEO of SAA, the media speculated he resigned due to the heavy losses SAA suffered in a R6-billion hedging loss.
In September 2004, it was reported that due to disappointing financial results, SAA would be cancelling its order of 15 A320 aircraft.
South African Airways became the first non-Saudi airline to fly a direct Hadj service to Medina in Saudi Arabia. Having not been involved in Hadj pilgrimage flights for some years, it operated a series of charters from Johannesburg to Jeddah in December 2004, as well as a one-off direct service to Medina, all using Boeing 747-400 aircraft. The airline has signed a co-operation agreement with Saudi Arabian Airlines and the South African Hadj and Umrah Council to jointly co-ordinate future pilgrimage flights (ref: Airliner World, March 2005).
The South African Airways fleet consists of the following aircraft (at March 2005):
- 7 Airbus A319-100 (further 4 on order)
- 6 Airbus A340-200
- 6 Airbus A340-300
- 7 Airbus A340-600 (further 4 on order)
- 9 Boeing 737-200
- 21 Boeing 737-800
- 8 Boeing 747-400
- South African Airways
- South African Airways Fleet Detail
- South African Airways Passenger Opinions
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